Economic Inequality: A Research Series

Economic analysis often focuses on understanding the average effects of a policy or program and, though useful, does not tell the whole story. This recurring series explores how policies and economic trends vary across geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic boundaries, through the lens of race, gender, age, income, education, and other factors. In tandem with the Equitable Growth Indicators (EGIs), we deliver timely data and analysis on a range of topics.

See article on Equitable Growth by Kartik B. Athreya, director of research and head of the Research and Statistics Group.
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Date Title Series Title Author(s)
May 22, 2024Veterans in the Labor Market: 2024 UpdateRajashri Chakrabarti, Dan Garcia, and Maxim Pinkovskiy
May 08, 2024How Are They Now? A Checkup on Homeowners Who Experienced Foreclosure Andrew Haughwout, Donghoon Lee, Daniel Mangrum, Belicia Rodriguez, Joelle Scally, and Wilbert van der Klaauw 
Apr 09, 2024A Focus on ‘Equitable’ and ‘Growth’ in Understanding the EconomyKartik B. Athreya
Feb 14, 2024How and Why Do Consumers Use “Buy Now, Pay Later”?Felix Aidala, Daniel Mangrum, and Wilbert van der Klaauw
Feb 07, 2024Racial and Ethnic Wealth Inequality in the Post-Pandemic EraWealth InequalityRajashri Chakrabarti, Natalia Emanuel, and Ben Lahey
Feb 07, 2024Wealth Inequality by Age in the Post-Pandemic EraWealth InequalityRajashri Chakrabarti, Natalia Emanuel, and Ben Lahey
Jan 10, 2024An Overlooked Factor in Banks’ Lending to MinoritiesMatteo Crosignani and Hanh Le
Dec 01, 2023Recent Disparities in Earnings and EmploymentRajashri Chakrabarti, Kasey Chatterji-Len, Dan Garcia, and Maxim Pinkovskiy
Nov 17, 2023Flood-Prone Basement Housing in New York City and the Impact on Low- and Moderate-Income RentersImpact of Extreme WeatherClaire Kramer Mills, Ambika Nair, and Julian di Giovanni
Nov 16, 2023Small Business Recovery after Natural Disasters in the Fed’s Second DistrictImpact of Extreme WeatherAsani Sarkar
Nov 15, 2023How Do Natural Disasters Affect Small Business Owners in the Fed's Second District?Impact of Extreme WeatherAsani Sarkar
Nov 09, 2023Transition Risks in the Fed’s Second District and the NationImpact of Extreme WeatherKristian Blickle, Rajashri Chakrabarti, and Maxim Pinkovskiy
Nov 08, 2023Comparing Physical Risk: The Fed’s Second District versus the NationImpact of Extreme WeatherKristian Blickle, Rajashri Chakrabarti, and Maxim Pinkovskiy
Oct 18, 2023Borrower Expectations for the Return of Student Loan Repayment Rajashri Chakrabarti, Daniel Mangrum, Sasha Thomas, and Wilbert van der Klaauw
Oct 16, 2023Racial Discrimination in Child Protective ServicesNatalia Emanuel, E. Jason Baron, Joseph J. Doyle Jr., and Peter Hull
Oct 05, 2023Does Income Inequality Affect Small Firms?Donggyu Lee, Thomas Drechsel, and Sebastian Doerr
Sep 26, 2023Who Uses “Buy Now, Pay Later"?Felix Aidala, Daniel Mangrum, and Wilbert van der Klaauw
Jun 22, 2023Elevated Rent Expectations Continue to Pressure Low-Income HouseholdsAndrew Haughwout, Ben Hyman, Ben Lahey, Devon Lall, and Jason Somerville
May 25, 2023Do Veterans Face Disparities in Higher Education, Health, and Housing?Military Service and Economic DifferencesRajashri Chakrabarti, Dan Garcia, and Maxim Pinkovskiy
May 25, 2023Do Veterans Face Disparities in the Labor Market—And What Accounts for Them?Military Service and Economic DifferencesRajashri Chakrabarti, Dan Garcia, and Maxim Pinkovskiy
Feb 27, 2023Does the CRA Increase Household Access to Credit?Erica Bucchieri, Jacob Conway, Jack Glaser, and Matthew Plosser
Jan 18, 2023Inflation Disparities by Race and Income NarrowInflation DisparitiesRajashri Chakrabarti, Dan Garcia, and Maxim Pinkovskiy
Jan 18, 2023Young, Less Educated Faced Higher Inflation in 2021—But Gaps Now ClosedInflation DisparitiesRajashri Chakrabarti, Dan Garcia, and Maxim Pinkovskiy
Jan 18, 2023Rural Households Hit Hardest by Inflation in 2021-22Inflation DisparitiesRajashri Chakrabarti, Dan Garcia, and Maxim Pinkovskiy
Oct 20, 2022How Have Racial and Ethnic Earnings Gaps Changed after COVID-19?The Labor Market after the COVID RecessionRajashri Chakrabarti, Kasey Chatterji-Len, Daniel Garcia, and Maxim Pinkovskiy
Oct 20, 2022Long COVID Appears to Have Led to a Surge of the Disabled in the WorkplaceThe Labor Market after the COVID RecessionRichard Deitz
Oct 04, 2022Eviction Expectations in the Post-Pandemic Housing MarketAndrew Haughwout, Ben Hyman, Benjamin Lahey, and Jason Somerville
Jun 30, 2022How Equitable Has the COVID Labor Market Recovery Been?Inflation, Employment, and Equitable GrowthRuchi Avtar, Rajashri Chakrabarti, and Maxim Pinkovskiy
Jun 30, 2022Was the 2021-22 Rise in Inflation Equitable?Inflation, Employment, and Equitable GrowthRuchi Avtar, Rajashri Chakrabarti, and Maxim Pinkovskiy
Apr 21, 2022What Might Happen When Student Loan Forbearance Ends?Student Debt Forbearance and Forgiveness Rajashri Chakrabarti, Jessica Lu, and Wilbert van der Klaauw
Apr 21, 2022Who Are the Federal Student Loan Borrowers and Who Benefits from Forgiveness?Student Debt Forbearance and ForgivenessJacob Goss, Daniel Mangrum, and Joelle Scally
Jan 07, 2022The Effect of Inequality on the Transmission of Monetary and Fiscal PolicySymposium on Heterogeneity in Macroeconomics Marco Del Negro, Keshav Dogra, and Laura Pilossoph
Jan 06, 2022The Effect of Monetary and Fiscal Policy on InequalitySymposium on Heterogeneity in Macroeconomics Marco Del Negro, Keshav Dogra, and Laura Pilossoph
Nov 17, 2021Uneven Distribution of Household Debt by Gender, Race, and EducationHousehold Debt and Educational DifferencesRuchi Avtar, Rajashri Chakrabarti, and Kasey Chatterji-Len
Nov 17, 2021Unequal Distribution of Delinquencies by Gender, Race, and EducationHousehold Debt and Educational DifferencesRuchi Avtar, Rajashri Chakrabarti, and Kasey Chatterji-Len
Nov 17, 2021The Role of Educational Attainment in Household Debt and Delinquency DisparitiesHousehold Debt and Educational DifferencesRuchi Avtar, Rajashri Chakrabarti, and Kasey Chatterji-Len
Jul 01, 2021Credit, Income, and InequalityFinancial Intermediation and InequalityManthos Delis, Fulvia Fringuellotti, and Steven Ongena
Jun 30, 2021Banking the Unbanked: The Past and Future of the Free Checking AccountFinancial Intermediation and InequalityStein Berre, Kristian Blickle, and Rajashri Chakrabarti
Jun 30, 2021Hold the Check: Overdrafts, Fee Caps, and Financial InclusionFinancial Intermediation and InequalityJennifer Dlugosz, Brian Melzer, and Donald P. Morgan
May 27, 2021COVID-19 and Small Businesses: Uneven Patterns by Race and IncomeCOVID-19 and Small BusinessesRuchi Avtar, Rajashri Chakrabarti, Davide Melcangi, Maxim Pinkovskiy, and Giorgio Topa
May 27, 2021Who Received PPP Loans by Fintech Lenders?COVID-19 and Small BusinessesJessica Battisto, Nathan Godin, Claire Kramer Mills, and Asani Sarkar
May 27, 2021Who Benefited from PPP Loans by Fintech Lenders?COVID-19 and Small BusinessesJessica Battisto, Nathan Godin, Claire Kramer Mills, and Asani Sarkar
May 19, 2021Keeping Borrowers Current in a PandemicMortgage Forbearance in COVID-19Andrew Haughwout, Donghoon Lee, Joelle Scally, and Wilbert van der Klaauw
May 19, 2021What Happens during Mortgage Forbearance?Mortgage Forbearance in COVID-19Andrew Haughwout, Donghoon Lee, Joelle Scally, and Wilbert van der Klaauw
May 19, 2021Small Business Owners Turn to Personal CreditMortgage Forbearance in COVID-19Andrew F. Haughwout, Donghoon Lee, Joelle Scally, and Wilbert van der Klaauw
May 19, 2021What’s Next for Forborne Borrowers?Mortgage Forbearance in COVID-19Andrew Haughwout, Donghoon Lee, Joelle Scally, and Wilbert van der Klaauw
May 13, 2021Racial and Income Gaps in Consumer Spending following COVID-19COVID-19 and Consumer SpendingRuchi Avtar, Rajashri Chakrabarti, Maxim Pinkovskiy, and Giorgio Topa
May 13, 2021Who’s Ready to Spend? Constrained Consumption across the Income DistributionCOVID-19 and Consumer SpendingDavid Dam, Davide Melcangi, Laura Pilossoph, and Will Schirmer
Feb 09, 2021Some Workers Have Been Hit Much Harder than Others by the PandemicThe Labor Market in COVID-19Jaison R. Abel and Richard Deitz
Feb 09, 2021Understanding the Racial and Income Gap in Commuting for Work Following COVID-19The Labor Market in COVID-19Ruchi Avtar, Rajashri Chakrabarti, and Maxim Pinkovskiy
Feb 09, 2021Black and White Differences in the Labor Market Recovery from COVID-19The Labor Market in COVID-19David Dam, Meghana Gaur, Fatih Karahan, Laura Pilossoph, and Will Schirmer
Jan 12, 2021Essential WorkersThe Racial and Income Gap in COVID-19Ruchi Avtar, Rajashri Chakrabarti, and Maxim Pinkovskiy
Jan 12, 2021Social Distancing, Pollution, and DemographicsThe Racial and Income Gap in COVID-19Ruchi Avtar, Rajashri Chakrabarti, Lindsay Meyerson, and Maxim Pinkovskiy
Jan 12, 2021Health Insurance, Comorbidities, and Medical FacilitiesThe Racial and Income Gap in COVID-19Ruchi Avtar, Rajashri Chakrabarti, and Maxim Pinkovskiy
Jan 12, 2021Public Transportation and Home CrowdingThe Racial and Income Gap in COVID-19Ruchi Avtar, Rajashri Chakrabarti, and Maxim Pinkovskiy
Aug 19, 2020Debt Relief and the CARES Act: Which Borrowers Face the Most Financial Strain?COVID-19 and Credit Market OutcomesRajashri Chakrabarti, Andrew Haughwout, Donghoon Lee, William Nober, Joelle Scally, and Wilbert van der Klaauw
Aug 18, 2020Debt Relief and the CARES Act: Which Borrowers Benefit the Most?COVID-19 and Credit Market OutcomesRajashri Chakrabarti, Andrew Haughwout, Donghoon Lee, William Nober, Joelle Scally, and Wilbert van der Klaauw
Aug 17, 2020Are Financially Distressed Areas More Affected by COVID-19?COVID-19 and Credit Market OutcomesRajashri Chakrabarti, William Nober, and Maxim Pinkovskiy
Jul 08, 2020Inequality in U.S. Homeownership Rates by Race and EthnicityCredit Market OutcomesAndrew Haughwout, Donghoon Lee, Joelle Scally, and Wilbert van der Klaauw
Jul 08, 2020Who Has Been Evicted and Why?Credit Market OutcomesAndrew Haughwout, Haoyang Liu, and Xiaohan Zhang
Jul 08, 2020Measuring Racial Disparities in Higher Education and Student Debt OutcomesCredit Market OutcomesRajashri Chakrabarti, William Nober, and Wilbert van der Klaauw
Jul 08, 2020Do College Tuition Subsidies Boost Spending and Reduce Debt? Impacts by Income and RaceCredit Market OutcomesRajashri Chakrabarti, William Nober, and Wilbert van der Klaauw
Jul 08, 2020Medicare and Financial Health across the United StatesCredit Market OutcomesPaul Goldsmith-Pinkham, Maxim Pinkovskiy, and Jacob Wallace
Jul 07, 2020Introduction to Credit Market OutcomesCredit Market OutcomesRajashri Chakrabarti
Mar 04, 2020Women Have Been Hit Hard by the Loss of Routine Jobs, TooLabor Market Outcomes Jaison R. Abel and Richard Deitz
Mar 04, 2020Is the Tide Lifting All Boats? A Closer Look at the Earnings Growth Experience of U.S. WorkersLabor Market Outcomes René Chalom, Fatih Karahan, Brendan Moore, and Giorgio Topa
Mar 04, 2020Searching for Higher Job SatisfactionLabor Market Outcomes Gizem Kosar, Leo Goldman, and Kyle Smith
Mar 04, 2020How Does Credit Access Affect Job-Search Outcomes and Sorting?Labor Market Outcomes Kyle Herkenhoff and Gordon Phillips
Mar 03, 2020Introduction to Labor Market OutcomesLabor Market Outcomes Rajashri Chakrabarti
Oct 16, 2019Optimists and Pessimists in the Housing MarketUnderstanding Causes and Implications of Various InequalitiesHaoyang Liu and Christopher Palmer
Oct 15, 2019Does U.S. Health Inequality Reflect Income Inequality – or Something Else?Understanding Causes and Implications of Various InequalitiesMaxim Pinkovskiy
Oct 10, 2019Is Free College the Solution to Student Debt Woes? Studying the Heterogeneous Impacts of Merit-Aid ProgramsUnderstanding Causes and Implications of Various InequalitiesRajashri Chakrabarti, William Nober, and Wilbert van der Klaauw
Oct 09, 2019Who Borrows for College – and Who Repays?Understanding Causes and Implications of Various InequalitiesAndrew F. Haughwout, Donghoon Lee, Joelle Scally, and Wilbert van der Klaauw
Oct 08, 2019Job Ladders and CareersUnderstanding Causes and Implications of Various InequalitiesFatih Karahan, Brendan Moore, and Serdar Ozkan
Oct 07, 2019Understanding Causes and Implications of Various InequalitiesUnderstanding Causes and Implications of Various InequalitiesRajashri Chakrabarti and William Nober
Oct 07, 2019Some Places Are Much More Unequal Than OthersUnderstanding Causes and Implications of Various InequalitiesJaison R. Abel and Richard Deitz
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